Eye Conditions

Blepharitis Ptosis
Cataracts Ectropion
Dry Eye Diabetic Retinopathy
Floaters Glaucoma
Macular Degeneration Entropion

Blepharitis

Blepharitis is an inflammation of the eyelids that involves the edges of the eyelids and eyelash hair follicles. Blepharitis is a common and sometimes long-lasting condition that usually affects adults but also can occur in children. People with skin conditions such as rosacea, seborrhea, oily skin, dandruff or dry eyes are more likely to get this condition. Blepharitis can be triggered by bacterial infections or by the eyelid glands making too much oil. This condition is not contagious.

Symptoms:

  1. Mucus at the corner of the eyes when you wake up
  2. Upper and lower eyelids that appear greasy
  3. A crust that clings to the lashes
  4. Itching
  5. Burning
  6. A feeling that something is in your eye when you blink
  7. Red and swollen eyes
  8. Missing lashes or lashes that turn inward
  9. Irritation or breakdown of the skin along the edges of the eyelids
  10. Excessive tears

Example:

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Cataracts

A clouding or loss of transparency of the lens in the eye as a result of tissue breakdown and protein clumping. There are many causes of cataracts, including aging, cortisone medication, trauma, diabetes, and other diseases. Cataracts affect most people who live into an old age. Symptoms include double or blurred vision and sensitivity to light and glare. A physician can diagnose cataracts by examining the eyes with a viewing instrument. Sunglasses can help to prevent cataracts. 

Symptoms:

  1. Clouded, blurred or dim vision
  2. Increasing difficulty with vision at night
  3. Sensitivity to light and glare
  4. Seeing "halos" around lights
  5. Frequent changes in eyeglass or contact lens prescription
  6. Fading or yellowing of colors
  7. Double vision in a single eye

Example:

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Dry Eye

A deficiency of tears. The main symptom is usually a scratchy or sandy feeling as if something is in the eye. Other symptoms may include stinging or burning of the eye; episodes of excess tearing that follow periods of very dry sensation; a stringy discharge from the eye; and pain and redness of the eye. Sometimes people with dry eye experience heaviness of the eyelids or blurred, changing, or decreased vision, although loss of vision is uncommon.

Symptoms:

  1. A stinging, burning or scratchy sensation in your eyes
  2. Stringy mucus in or around your eyes
  3. Increased eye irritation from smoke or wind
  4. Eye fatigue after short periods of reading
  5. Sensitivity to light
  6. Difficulty wearing contact lenses
  7. Periods of excessive tearing
  8. Blurred vision, often worsening at the end of the day or after focusing for a prolonged period

Example:

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Floaters

Eye floaters look like black or gray specks, strings or cobwebs that drift about when you move your eyes. Most eye floaters are caused by age-related changes that occur as the jelly-like substance (vitreous humor) inside your eyes becomes more liquid. When this happens, microscopic fibers within the vitreous humor tend to clump together and can cast tiny shadows on your retina, which you may see as eye floaters. If you notice a sudden increase in the number of eye floaters, contact an eye specialist immediately — especially if you also see flashes of light or lose your peripheral vision. These can be symptoms of a retinal tear or a retinal detachment, which requires prompt attention.


Example:

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Macular Degeneration

Macular degeneration is damage to or breakdown of the macula of the eye. The macula is a small area at the back of the eye that allows us to see fine details clearly. Macular degeneration makes close work like threading a needle or reading a book, difficult or impossible. When the macula doesn't function correctly, we experience blurriness or darkness in the center of our vision. Although macular degeneration reduces vision in the central part of the retina, it does not affect the eye's side or peripheral vision. For example, you could see a clock but not be able to tell what time it is. Macular degeneration alone does not result in total blindness. Most people continue to have some useful vision and are able to take care of themselves.

There are two forms of macular degeneration:

The Dry Type

This is the most common form. In this type of macular degeneration, the delicate tissues of the macula become thinned and cease to function properly.

The Wet Type

This is less common, but is typically more damaging. The wet type of macular degeneration is caused by the growth of abnormal blood vessels behind the macula. The abnormal blood vessels tend to hemorrhage or leak, with the result being the formation of scar tissue if left untreated. In some instances, the dry type of macular degeneration can turn into the wet type.

Macular degeneration develops differently in each person. Because it will affect different regions of the macula from person to person, the symptoms tend to vary. Macular degeneration causes a progressive loss of central sight, however, it does not cause total blindness. Peripheral vision is unaffected allowing a certain amount of mobility in normal surroundings. If left untreated, the wet type of macular degeneration may progress rapidly.

Symptoms:

  1. The loss of the ability to see objects clearly
  2. Vision that is noticeably distorted
  3. Straight lines appear wavy
  4. Objects may appear as the wrong shape or size
  5. The loss of clear, correct colors
  6. Difficulty reading or seeing objects up close
  7. A dark, empty area in the center of vision

Example:

Dry_Macular01 Wet_Macular01
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Ptosis

Ptosis is the term used for a drooping upper eyelid. Ptosis, also called blepharoptosis, can affect one or both eyes.

The eyelids serve to protect and lubricate the outer eye. The upper eyelid is lifted by a muscle called the levator muscle. Inside the back part of the lid is a tarsal plate which adds rigidity to the lid. The levator muscle is attached to the tarsal plate by a flat tendon called the levator aponeurosis. When the muscle cannot lift the eyelid or lifts it only partially, the person is said to have a ptosis.

There are two types of ptosis, acquired and congenital. Acquired ptosis is more common. Congenital ptosis is present at birth. Both congenital and acquired ptosis can be, but are not necessarily, hereditary.

Symptoms

  1. Drooping of one or both eyelids
  2. Increased tearing
  3. If ptosis is severe, interference with vision.

Example:

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Ectropion

Ectropion is a condition in which stretching of the lower eyelid with age allows the eyelid to droop downward and turn outward. Eyelid burns or skin disease may also cause this problem. Over time, many people develop excess eyelid skin. Eyelid skin is the thinnest skin of the body, so it is more likely to stretch. In the upper eyelid, this stretched skin may limit the field of vision, and may produce a feeling of heaviness and a tired appearance. In the lower eyelid, "bags" form. The excess skin in the upper eyelids can be removed surgically to improve the field of vision and other symptoms. Removal of the excess skin in either the upper or lower eyelids may improve appearance. If any fatty tissue is present, it may be removed at the same time.

Symptoms

  1. Sagging skin around the eyes
  2. Dryness or redness
  3. Excessive tearing
  4. Sensitivity to light and wind

Example:

Ectropion01

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy is the most common diabetic eye disease and a leading cause of blindness in American adults. It is caused by changes in the blood vessels of the retina. In some people with diabetic retinopathy, blood vessels may swell and leak fluid. In other people, abnormal new blood vessels grow on the surface of the retina. The retina is the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. A healthy retina is necessary for good vision. If you have diabetic retinopathy, at first you may not notice changes to your vision. But over time, diabetic retinopathy can get worse and cause vision loss. Diabetic retinopathy usually affects both eyes.

Symptoms:

  1. Blurred or distorted vision or difficulty reading.
  2. Floaters in your vision.
  3. Partial or total loss of vision or a shadow or veil across your field of vision.
  4. Pain in the eye.

Example:

Dia_Ret01

Glaucoma

A common eye condition in which the fluid pressure inside the eyes rises because of slowed fluid drainage from the eye. If untreated, it may damage the optic nerve and other parts of the eye, causing the loss of vision or even blindness.

The elderly, African-Americans, and people with family histories of the disease are at greatest risk. There are no symptoms in the early stage of glaucoma. Glaucoma is often called "the sneak thief of sight." Often, by the time the patient notices vision loss, glaucoma can only be halted, not reversed.

There are several different types of glaucoma, including open-angle glaucoma and acute angle-closure glaucoma, Open-angle glaucoma is the common adult-onset type of glaucoma. Acute angle-closure glaucoma is a less common form of glaucoma but one that can rapidly impair vision.

The treatment of glaucoma may include medication, surgery, or laser surgery. Eye drops or pills alone can usually control glaucoma, although they cannot cure it. Some drugs are designed to reduce pressure by slowing the flow of fluid into the eye, while others help to improve fluid drainage. Surgery to help fluid escape from the eye was once extensively used, but except for laser surgery, it is now reserved for the most difficult cases. In laser surgery for glaucoma, a laser beam of light is focused on the part of the anterior chamber where the fluid leaves the eye. This results in a series of small changes, making it easier for fluid to exit. Over time, the effect of laser surgery may wear off. 

Symptoms:

The most common types of glaucoma — primary open-angle glaucoma and acute angle-closure glaucoma — have completely different symptoms.

Primary open-angle glaucoma signs and symptoms include:

  1. Gradual loss of peripheral vision, usually in both eyes
  2. Tunnel vision in the advanced stages

Acute angle-closure glaucoma signs and symptoms include:

  1. Severe eye pain
  2. Nausea and vomiting (accompanying the severe eye pain)
  3. Sudden onset of visual disturbance, often in low light
  4. Blurred vision
  5. Halos around lights
  6. Reddening of the eye

Example:

Glaucoma01

Entropion

Entropion is a condition in which the lower eyelid turns inward, rubbing against the eye. Entropion occurs most commonly as a result of aging. Infection and scarring inside the eyelid are other causes of entropion. When the eyelid turns inward, the eyelashes and skin rub against the eye, making it red, irritated and sensitive to light and wind. Over time, many people develop excess eyelid skin. Eyelid skin is the thinnest skin of the body, so it is more likely to stretch. In the upper eyelid, this stretched skin may limit the field of vision, and may produce a feeling of heaviness and a tired appearance. In the lower eyelid, "bags" form. The excess skin in the upper eyelids can be removed surgically to improve the field of vision and other symptoms. Removal of the excess skin in either the upper or lower eyelids may improve appearance. If any fatty tissue is present, it may be removed at the same time.

Symptoms

  1. Sagging skin around the eyes
  2. Redness and pain of the eye
  3. Sensitivity to light and wind

Example:

Entropion01
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